Attending Day Care at Age 2-3: Effects Studies have Found

Based on the results of five studies, attending a child care center at age 2-3 can best benefit children's intellectual performance at age 4-5, but can have a negative impact on their behaviors, increasing the risk of behavioral problems. Longer attendance is associated with higher levels of behavioral problems.  Hence, we recommend that attending quality child care at age 3, but not for long hours, may avoid the likely negative impacts on children's behavior while giving them the greatest academic benefits.

Created on November 21 2015 at 08: 00 AM


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Details of Scientific Answers: Click on each bullet to Read References

Pros

References:

1: "How Much Is Too Much? The Influence Of Preschool Centers On Children'S Social And Cognitive Development," Economics of Education Review, 2007, by S Loeb, M Bridges, D Bassok, B Fuller. (Citations: 373).

This paper examines the effects of different child-care arrangements on children's cognitive and social proficiencies at the start of kindergarten. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, we identify effects using OLS, matching and instrumental variables estimates. Overall, center-based care raises reading and math scores, but has a negative effect for socio-behavioral measures. However, for English-proficient Hispanic children, the academic gains are considerably higher and the socio-behavioral effects are neutral. The duration of center-based care matters: the greatest academic benefit is found for those children who start at ages 2–3 rather than at younger or older ages; negative behavioral effects are greater the younger the start age. These patterns are found across the distributions of family income. The intensity of center-based care also matters: more hours per day lead to greater academic benefits, but increased behavioral consequences. However, these intensity effects depend on family income and race.


2: "Early Child Care And Children'S Development In The Primary Grades: Follow-Up Results From The Nichd Study Of Early Child Care," American Educational, 2005, by NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (Citations: 182).

Associations between early child care and children's functioning though the end of third grade were examined. Some of the relations that had been detected before children's school entry were maintained. Higher-quality child care continued to be linked to higher scores in ...


Cons

References:

1: "How Much Is Too Much? The Influence Of Preschool Centers On Children'S Social And Cognitive Development," Economics of Education Review, 2007, by S Loeb, M Bridges, D Bassok, B Fuller. (Citations: 373).

This paper examines the effects of different child-care arrangements on children's cognitive and social proficiencies at the start of kindergarten. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, we identify effects using OLS, matching and instrumental variables estimates. Overall, center-based care raises reading and math scores, but has a negative effect for socio-behavioral measures. However, for English-proficient Hispanic children, the academic gains are considerably higher and the socio-behavioral effects are neutral. The duration of center-based care matters: the greatest academic benefit is found for those children who start at ages 2–3 rather than at younger or older ages; negative behavioral effects are greater the younger the start age. These patterns are found across the distributions of family income. The intensity of center-based care also matters: more hours per day lead to greater academic benefits, but increased behavioral consequences. However, these intensity effects depend on family income and race.


2: "Early Child Care And Children'S Development In The Primary Grades: Follow-Up Results From The Nichd Study Of Early Child Care," American Educational, 2005, by NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (Citations: 182).

Associations between early child care and children's functioning though the end of third grade were examined. Some of the relations that had been detected before children's school entry were maintained. Higher-quality child care continued to be linked to higher scores in ...


How

References:

1: "How Much Is Too Much? The Influence Of Preschool Centers On Children'S Social And Cognitive Development," Economics of Education Review, 2007, by S Loeb, M Bridges, D Bassok, B Fuller. (Citations: 373).

This paper examines the effects of different child-care arrangements on children's cognitive and social proficiencies at the start of kindergarten. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, we identify effects using OLS, matching and instrumental variables estimates. Overall, center-based care raises reading and math scores, but has a negative effect for socio-behavioral measures. However, for English-proficient Hispanic children, the academic gains are considerably higher and the socio-behavioral effects are neutral. The duration of center-based care matters: the greatest academic benefit is found for those children who start at ages 2–3 rather than at younger or older ages; negative behavioral effects are greater the younger the start age. These patterns are found across the distributions of family income. The intensity of center-based care also matters: more hours per day lead to greater academic benefits, but increased behavioral consequences. However, these intensity effects depend on family income and race.



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Attending Day Care at Age 2-3: Effects Studies have Found

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