How to Discipline Your Toddler with Research-Proven Strategies? What are the Dos and Don’ts?

Based on the results of 6 studies for children aged 2 and above, parents should use reasoning backed up with non-physical and non-verbal punishment including time-out, deprivation of privileges, and mild spanking by two smacks on the buttocks with an open hand (please note however that corporal punishment of children is illegal in 35 countries around the world including most of Western Europe), which is most effective for reducing toddlers' misbehavior without damaging their mental health.

For frequent misbehavior, only reasoning without backup of punishment results in the greatest increase in disruptive behavior by age 4.  Parents should also be wary that overly frequent spanking is detrimental and can even worsen children’s misbehavior

Created on November 21 2015 at 08: 00 AM


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Details of Scientific Answers: Click on each bullet to Read References

Pros

References:

1: "The Effects Of Discipline Responses In Delaying Toddler Misbehavior Recurrences," Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 1996, by RE Larzelere, WN Schneider, DB Larson. (Citations: 68).

ABSTRACT To compare the effectiveness of maternal punishment (eg, time out, spanking), reasoning, and the combination of the two, 40 volunteer mothers recorded their responses to incidents of toddler fighting and disobedience in a structured diary for 4 weeks. ...


2: "The Effectiveness Of Parental Discipline For Toddler Misbehavior At Different Levels Of Child Distress," Family Relations, 1994, by RE Larzelere, JA Merenda. (Citations: 34).

Behavioral theories and Hoffman's information-processing theory have differing implications for how the effectiveness of parental discipline varies according to the level of distress experienced by the child. Consistent with behavioral theories, punishment was more ...


References:

1: "Child Outcomes Of Nonabusive And Customary Physical Punishment By Parents: An Updated Literature Review," Clinical Child And Family Psychology Review, 2000, by RE Larzelere. (Citations: 222).

Abstract This article updates the only previous systematic literature review of child outcomes of nonabusive and customary physical punishment by parents. The outcomes differ by methodologic, child, and subcultural factors as well as by how the physical punishment ...


2: "The Effects Of Discipline Responses In Delaying Toddler Misbehavior Recurrences," Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 1996, by RE Larzelere, WN Schneider, DB Larson. (Citations: 68).

ABSTRACT To compare the effectiveness of maternal punishment (eg, time out, spanking), reasoning, and the combination of the two, 40 volunteer mothers recorded their responses to incidents of toddler fighting and disobedience in a structured diary for 4 weeks. ...


Cons

References:

1: "Parental Discipline And Behavior Problems In Young Children," The Journal Of Genetic Psychology, 1998, by V Brenner, RA Fox. (Citations: 142).

Abstract The relationship between parenting practices and behavior problems in very young children was investigated via the Parent Behavior Checklist (PBC; Fox, 1994). Results indicated that parents' use of verbal and corporal punishment was the strongest predictor ...


2: "The Risks And Alternatives To Physical Punishment Use With Children," Journal Of Pediatric Health Care, 2003, by CA Ateah, ML Secco, RL Woodgate. (Citations: 28).

Despite strong evidence of negative developmental outcomes resulting from the use of physical (or corporal) punishment with children, its use by parents and other caregivers is common. Such negative outcomes include child aggression, mental health issues, and ...


How

References:

1: "Punishment Enhances Reasoning'S Effectiveness As A Disciplinary Response To Toddlers," Journal Of Marriage And The Family, 1998, by RE Larzelere, PR Sather, WN Schneider. (Citations: 78).

Three different kinds of analyses investigated the effect of disciplinary reasoning on subsequent misbehavior with 2-and 3-year-olds. The effectiveness of reasoning by itself depended on how often reasoning had been combined with punishment on other ...



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punishment, time-out, misbehavior, discipline, preschooler, toddler

How to Discipline Your Toddler with Research-Proven Strategies? What are the Dos and Don’ts?

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