Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation: Which One is Associated with Children’s Academic Performance? And How do They Develop over Time?

Based on the findings of 6 studies, academic intrinsic motivation is associated with academic performance. On the contrary, extrinsic motivation is associated with poor academic performance.  These studies cover children’s ages from early elementary school to high school student. (Term explanation: Intrinsic motivation comes from internal factors, such as feeling good doing it or feeling happy doing it, as opposed to extrinsic motivation in which the drive of motivation is from external factors such as doing things in order to get rewards.)

Below are the details of the findings:

(1) Stronger intrinsic motivation can predict better academic achievement because intrinsic motivation and academic achievement influence one another in a positive and reciprocal way for children. On the contrary, extrinsic motivation is related to poor academic performance.

 

(2) In terms of the development of motivation over time:  By comparing motivation of the same child over years, in general, children’s academic intrinsic motivation decreases with increasing age. However, by comparing different children over the years, intrinsic motivation continues from early age to later (children with stronger intrinsic motivation at ages 7 & 8 can predict stronger intrinsic motivation at age 9), and becomes stable from middle elementary through high school (children with higher academic intrinsic motivation maintain high motivation, and vice versa). Therefore, identifying children with lower intrinsic motivation with intervention is important to prevent future school failure.   

Created on December 08 2015 at 01: 00 PM


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Details of Scientific Answers: Click on each bullet to Read References

References:

1: "Academic intrinsic motivation in elementary and junior high school students," Journal of educational psychology, 2005, by Gottfried, A. E. . (Citations: 721).



2: "Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the classroom: age differences and academic correlates," Journal of educational psychology, 2005, by Lepper, M. R., Corpus, J. H., & Iyengar, S. S. . (Citations: 721).



3: "Within-year changes in children’s intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations: Contextual predictors and academic outcomes," Contemporary Educational Psychology, 2009, by Corpus, J. H., McClintic-Gilbert, M. S., & Hayenga, A. O. . (Citations: 119).



4: "Intrinsic intellectuality: Its relations to social class, intelligence, and achievement," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1984, by Lloyd, J., & Barenblatt, L. . (Citations: 95).



References:

1: "Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the classroom: age differences and academic correlates," Journal of educational psychology, 2005, by Lepper, M. R., Corpus, J. H., & Iyengar, S. S. . (Citations: 721).



2: "Within-year changes in children’s intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations: Contextual predictors and academic outcomes," Contemporary Educational Psychology, 2009, by Corpus, J. H., McClintic-Gilbert, M. S., & Hayenga, A. O. . (Citations: 119).



References:

1: "Continuity of academic intrinsic motivation from childhood through late adolescence: A longitudinal study," Journal of Educational Psychology, 2001, by Gottfried, A. E., Fleming, J. S., & Gottfried, A. W.. (Citations: 591).



References:

1: "Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the classroom: age differences and academic correlates," Journal of educational psychology, 2005, by Lepper, M. R., Corpus, J. H., & Iyengar, S. S. . (Citations: 721).



References:

1: "Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the classroom: age differences and academic correlates," Journal of educational psychology, 2005, by Lepper, M. R., Corpus, J. H., & Iyengar, S. S. . (Citations: 721).



References:

1: "Role of cognitively stimulating home environment in children's academic intrinsic motivation: A longitudinal study," Child Development, 1998, by Gottfried, A. E., Fleming, J. S., & Gottfried, A. W.. (Citations: 214).



2: "Intrinsic intellectuality: Its relations to social class, intelligence, and achievement," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1984, by Lloyd, J., & Barenblatt, L. . (Citations: 95).




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motivation, academic, home, environment, school-age, elementary, adolescence

Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation: Which One is Associated with Children’s Academic Performance? And How do They Develop over Time?

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