Impacts of TV on Preschoolers: Research Proven Outcomes and Misconceptions

Based on the results of six studies, there are a number of misconceptions about the effects of preschoolers' TV-viewing on their development. In fact, preschoolers' TV-viewing is not associated with subsequent attentional problems in later years. A moderate amount of TV-viewing is not detrimental to preschoolers' language and communication skills. On the contrary, a moderate amount of viewing of child-targeted informative TV programs is beneficial to children's language development because of the acquisition of new words and ways of conversation. Watching child-targeted informative TV programs can even benefit children's academic skills of reading, math, receptive vocabulary, and school readiness. On the contrary, frequent viewing of non-informative TV programs or non-child-targeted programs is associated with poor test scores for children aged 2-7 years. TV-viewing is not associated with the onset of myopia. Family history plays a more important role in myopia.

Created on November 21 2015 at 08: 00 AM


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Pros

References:

1: "The Role Of Television In Language Acquisition," Developmental Review, 1983, by M Rice. (Citations: 50).

Abstract The conventional view among developmental psychologists is that television viewing does not contribute to a young viewer's language acquisition. That assumption is challenged. Evidence is presented that suggests that children can learn about language ...


2: "Impacts Of Television Viewing On Young Children'S Literacy Development In The Usa: A Review Of The Literature," Journal Of Early Childhood Literacy, 2008, by AM Moses. (Citations: 26).

Abstract Television viewing plays an important role in the lives of many young children and has received a great deal of attention in the public as well as in research. This review examined research on television and literacy development in early childhood, including ...


Cons

References:

1: "The Role Of Television In Language Acquisition," Developmental Review, 1983, by M Rice. (Citations: 50).

Abstract The conventional view among developmental psychologists is that television viewing does not contribute to a young viewer's language acquisition. That assumption is challenged. Evidence is presented that suggests that children can learn about language ...


2: "Impacts Of Television Viewing On Young Children'S Literacy Development In The Usa: A Review Of The Literature," Journal Of Early Childhood Literacy, 2008, by AM Moses. (Citations: 26).

Abstract Television viewing plays an important role in the lives of many young children and has received a great deal of attention in the public as well as in research. This review examined research on television and literacy development in early childhood, including ...


References:

1: "Early Television Exposure And Subsequent Attentional Problems In Children," Pediatrics, 2004, by DA Christakis, FJ Zimmerman, DL DiGiuseppe. (Citations: 691).

Objective. Cross-sectional research has suggested that television viewing may be associated with decreased attention spans in children. However, longitudinal data of early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems have been lacking. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that early television exposure (at ages 1 and 3) is associated with attentional problems at age 7. Methods. We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a representative longitudinal data set. Our main outcome was the hyperactivity subscale of the Behavioral Problems Index determined on all participants at age 7. Children who were ≥1.2 standard deviations above the mean were classified as having attentional problems. Our main predictor was hours of television watched daily at ages 1 and 3 years. Results. Data were available for 1278 children at age 1 and 1345 children at age 3. Ten percent of children had attentional problems at age 7. In a logistic regression model, hours of television viewed per day at both ages 1 and 3 was associated with attentional problems at age 7 (1.09 [1.03–1.15] and 1.09 [1.02–1.16]), respectively. Conclusions. Early television exposure is associated with attentional problems at age 7. Efforts to limit television viewing in early childhood may be warranted, and additional research is needed.


2: "Associations Between Content Types Of Early Media Exposure And Subsequent Attentional Problems," Pediatrics, 2007, by FJ Zimmerman, DA Christakis. (Citations: 146).

OBJECTIVE. Television and video/DVD viewing among very young children has become both pervasive and heavy. Previous studies have reported an association between early media exposure and problems with attention regulation but did not have data on the content type that children watched. We tested the hypothesis that early television viewing of 3 content types is associated with subsequent attentional problems. The 3 different content types are educational, nonviolent entertainment, and violent entertainment. METHODS. Participants were children in a nationally representative sample collected in 1997 and reassessed in 2002. The analysis was a logistic regression of a high score on a validated parent-reported measure of attentional problems, regressed on early television exposure by content and several important sociodemographic control variables. RESULTS. Viewing of educational television before age 3 was not associated with attentional problems 5 years later. However, viewing of either violent or non-violent entertainment television before age 3 was significantly associated with subsequent attentional problems, and the magnitude of the association was large. Viewing of any content type at ages 4 to 5 was not associated with subsequent problems. CONCLUSIONS. The association between early television viewing and subsequent attentional problems is specific to noneducational viewing and to viewing before age 3.


3: "Does Childhood Television Viewing Lead To Attention Problems In Adolescence? Results From A Prospective Longitudinal Study," Pediatrics, 2007, by CE Landhuis, R Poulton, D Welch, RJ Hancox. (Citations: 105).

Abstract CONTEXT. There is controversy over whether childhood television viewing causes attention problems. The findings from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have been mixed. To our knowledge, no longitudinal studies have assessed the impact of children's ...


References:

1: "Family History, Near Work, Outdoor Activity, And Myopia In Singapore Chinese Preschool Children," British Journal of Ophthalmology, 2010, by W Low, M Dirani, G Gazzard, YH Chan. (Citations: 63).

Abstract Aims To investigate the risk factors for myopia, including near work and outdoor activity, in Singapore Chinese preschool children. Methods A cross-sectional study, with disproportionate random sampling by 6-month age groups, of 3009 Singapore Chinese children aged 6–72 months was performed. Information on family history, near work and outdoor activity was obtained. Spherical equivalent refraction (SER) was assessed. Results Children with two myopic parents were more likely to be myopic (adjusted OR=1.91; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.63) and to have a more myopic SER (regression coefficient=−0.35; 95% CI −0.47 to −0.22) than children without myopic parents. For each 1 cm taller height, the SER was more myopic by 0.01 dioptres. Neither near work nor outdoor activity was associated with preschool myopia. Conclusions A family history of myopia was the strongest factor associated with preschool myopia. In contrast, neither near work nor outdoor activity was found to be associated with early myopia. These data suggest that genetic factors may play a more substantial role in the development of early-onset myopia than key environmental factors.


References:

1: "The Relations Of Early Television Viewing To School Readiness And Vocabulary Of Children From Low-Income Families: The Early Window Project," Child Development, 2001, by JC Wright, AC Huston, KC Murphy, M St. Peters. (Citations: 256).

For two cohorts of children from low-to moderate-income families, time-use diaries of television viewing were collected over 3 years (from ages 2-5 and 4-7 years, respectively), and tests of reading, math, receptive vocabulary, and school readiness were administered ...


References:

1: "The Relations Of Early Television Viewing To School Readiness And Vocabulary Of Children From Low-Income Families: The Early Window Project," Child Development, 2001, by JC Wright, AC Huston, KC Murphy, M St. Peters. (Citations: 256).

For two cohorts of children from low-to moderate-income families, time-use diaries of television viewing were collected over 3 years (from ages 2-5 and 4-7 years, respectively), and tests of reading, math, receptive vocabulary, and school readiness were administered ...


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