How Does Academic-Oriented Preschool or Kindergarten Influence Children's Development?

Based on the results of four studies, even though there may be some immediate impacts on the acquisition of some academic skills, didactic or academic-focused early childhood programs have no long-term benefits for children's school performance, especially for boys. In fact, boys who attend didactic kindergartens have lower school performance than boys who attend non-didactic programs by grade 6. For girls, there is no "significant" long-term benefits, although the findings about the effects of academic-oriented programs on girls' long-term school achievements are mixed. In addition, didactic and academic-oriented programs also have some negative impacts including limiting creative expression, increasing anxiety in tests, and forming negative attitudes towards school. On the contrary, programs which are child-centered and focused on children's social-emotional needs have stable and long-term benefits on both school performance and emotional well-being. 

Created on November 21 2015 at 08: 00 AM


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Details of Scientific Answers: Click on each bullet to Read References

References:

1: "Four Preschool Programs: Their Dimensions And Effects," Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development , 1975, by LB Miller, JL Dyer, H Stevenson, SH White. (Citations: 206).

This report presents results from an experimental comparison of four prekindergarten programs and a 3-year follow-up through second grade. The major purposes of the study were:(a) to obtain information on program dimensions; and (b) to assess program effects ...


References:

1: "Moving Up The Grades: Relationship Between Preschool Model And Later School Success.," Early Childhood Research & Practice, 2002, by RA Marcon. (Citations: 203).

A follow-up study of children who began school at age 4 (referred to as Year 1 in this study) was conducted to examine the influence of three different preschool models on later school success. These children from an urban school district were studied again in Year 5 as they ...


2: "Long-Term Effects Of Four Preschool Programs: Sixth, Seventh, And Eighth Grades," Child Development, 1983, by LB Miller, RP Bizzell. (Citations: 100).

60%-65% of the children who were in 4 prekindergarten programs for 1 year in 1968-1969 were compared at sixth, seventh, and eighth grades on IQ and school achievement. IQs did not differ significantly among the program groups, but in reading and math there were ...


References:

1: "Academic Environments In Preschool: Do They Pressure Or Challenge Young Children," Early Education and Development, 1990, by K Hirsh-Pasek, MC Hyson. (Citations: 90).

The question of whether early academic environments provide a challenge or a pressure for young children is being hotly debated, yet there is little empirical research on this topic. This paper presents a subset of data from a two-year comprehensive project designed to ...


References:

1: "Moving Up The Grades: Relationship Between Preschool Model And Later School Success.," Early Childhood Research & Practice, 2002, by RA Marcon. (Citations: 203).

A follow-up study of children who began school at age 4 (referred to as Year 1 in this study) was conducted to examine the influence of three different preschool models on later school success. These children from an urban school district were studied again in Year 5 as they ...


2: "Long-Term Effects Of Four Preschool Programs: Sixth, Seventh, And Eighth Grades," Child Development, 1983, by LB Miller, RP Bizzell. (Citations: 100).

60%-65% of the children who were in 4 prekindergarten programs for 1 year in 1968-1969 were compared at sixth, seventh, and eighth grades on IQ and school achievement. IQs did not differ significantly among the program groups, but in reading and math there were ...



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